HEALTHSCAPING

      Urban Europe

          1200 – 1500


Description of the data sets currently available on the viewer

Analytical layers

 

The EPSG of all these layers is n°31370 – Belge 1972 / Belgian Lambert 72. If you have any question, please contact l.g.g.hermenault@uva.nl. Unless  otherwise specified, the Copyright for these layers is: Janna Coomans, Léa Hermenault – ERC Project “Healthscaping Urban Europe” (n° 724114 ).

The “Historical Map”, which can be used as a background layer on the viewer, is the map of Ghent made by Jacob van Deventer (1545). 

PUBLIC WORKS

—PUBLIC WORKS 15th CENTURY

What do you see on the map? Proportion of years (among our 10 sample years selected between 1409 and 1456) for which at least one public work has been done on a location

  • Origin of the information: Reeks 400, Stadsrekeningen, 10-13, 15-16, 18, 25, 27, 29 (Stadsarchief Gent “De Zwarte Doos”)
  • Comments on choices which have been made: we chose 10 sample years between 1409 and 1456. We selected one year approximately every 5 years and took into account the the variations of the total of expenses made by the city in order to be the most representative as possible. The unit element of the GIS layers are the sites. Since all the sites can’t be localized with the same detail of precision, we mapped this information into two different layers. Precisely localized sites (markets, churches, bridges, gates, etc.) were mapped with points, whereas imprecisely localized site (rivers, street, quays, etc.) were mapped with lines. Before joining the database to the GIS layer, we have synthetized information per site (total money invested, number of different expenses, number of expenses per period etc.)
  • Number of items: 112 items for the points layer, and 58 items for the lines layer
  • Description of the fields:
      •  

Name of the column

Description

Id

Unique identifier of each site

name

Name of the site

Nb_occ

Number of years for which at least one public work has been recorded for this specific location

Perc_nb_oc

Proportion of years for which at least one public work have been recorded for this specific location

Bridge

0=false : no work on a bridge has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of a work on a bridge has been recorded

Building

0=false : no work on a building has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of work on a building has been recorded

Crane

0=false : no work on a crane has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of a work on a crane has been recorded

Fortificat (=fortification)

0=false : no work on fortification has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of work on fortification has been recorded

gate

0=false : no work on a gate has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of a work on a gate has been recorded

Guarding p (=guarding post)

0=false : no work on a guarding post has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of a work on a guarding post has been recorded

other

0=false : no other kind of work have been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of another kind of work has been recorded

Street or (=street or market)

0=false : no work on a street or a market has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of a work on a street or market has been recorded

Watermill

0=false : no work on a watermill has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of a work on a watermill has been recorded

waterworks

0=false : no work on a waterwork has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of a work on a waterworks has been recorded

 

—PUBLIC WORKS 14th CENTURY

What do you see on the map? Proportion of years (among our 13 sample years selected betwwen 1321 and 1389) for which at least one public work has been done on a location

  • Origin of the information: Printed primary sources.

– Vuylsteke, Julius P. and Alfons van Werveke, eds. Gentsche stads- en baljuwsrekeningen, 1280-1336. Ghent: Meyer-van Loo, 1900.

– Pauw, Napoleon de, and Julius Vuylsteke, eds. De rekeningen der stad Gent: Tijdvak van Jacob van Artevelde, 1336-1349. Ghent: A. Hoste, 1874

– Werveke, Alfons van, ed. Gentse stads- en baljuwsrekeningen (1351-1364). Brussels: Paleis der Academiën, 1970.

-Nicholas, David, and Walter Prevenier, eds., Gentse stads en baljuwsrekeningen (1365-1376). Brussels: Paleis der Academiën, 1999

– Vuylsteke, Julius P. ed. De rekeningen der stad Gent: Tijdvak van Philips van Artevelde, 1376-1389. Ghent: A. Hoste, 1893

  • Comments on choices which have been made: we chose 13 sample years between 1321 and 1389. We selected one year approximately every 5 years and took into account the the variations of the total of expenses made by the city in order to be the most representative as possible. The unit element of the GIS layers are sites. Since all the sites can’t be localized with the same detail of precision, we mapped this information into two different layers. Precisely localized sites (markets, churches, bridges, gates, etc.) were mapped with points, whereas imprecisely localized site (rivers, street, quays, etc.) were mapped with lines. Before joining the database to the GIS layer, we have synthetized information per site (total money invested, number of different expenses, number of expenses per period etc.)
  • Number of items: 83 items for the lines layer and 113 items for the points layer
  • Description of the fields:
    •  

Name of the column

Description

Id

Unique identifier of each site

name

Name of the site

Nb_occ

Number of years for which at least one public work have been recorded for this specific location

Perc_nb_oc

Proportion of years for which at least one public work have been recorded for this specific location

Bridge

0=false : no work on a bridge has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of a work on a bridge has been recorded

Building

0=false : no work on a building has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of work on a building has been recorded

Crane

0=false : no work on a crane has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of a work on a crane has been recorded

Fortificat (=fortification)

0=false : no work on fortification has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of work on fortification has been recorded

gate

0=false : no work on a gate has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of a work on a gate has been recorded

Guarding p (=guarding post)

0=false : no work on a guarding post has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of a work on a guarding post has been recorded

other

0=false : no other kind of work have been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of another kind of work has been recorded

Street or (=street or market)

0=false : no work on a street or a market has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of a work on a street or market has been recorded

Watermill

0=false : no work on a watermill has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of a work on a watermill has been recorded

waterworks

0=false : no work on a waterwork has been recorded on this location

1=true : at least one occurrence of a work on a waterworks has been recorded

 

 

PUBLIC HEALTH RELATED ORDINANCES 14th CENTURY

What do you see on the map? Total number of public health related ordinances issued per locations between 1337 and 1380

  • Origin of the information: printed primary source. N. De Pauw (ed.), De voorgeboden der stad Gent in de XIVe eeuw (1337-1382), Gent Arnoot-Braeckman, 1885
  • Comments on choices which have been made:  the unit element of this database is the site for which a public health related ordinance has been issued. When two (or more) different sites are mentioned in one ordinance, the original mention has been split up into as many records that there were of sites. What we call here “public health related ordinances” are ordinances which deal with the following topics: zoning, circulation, cleaning,  trade limitations, limitation on animal possession, shop spatial management, product quality control, limitation on exporting products outside the city, buying limitations inside the city, limitations on product acquisition, fire safety, timber storage management, pious or moral behaviour, tripe making, bribery, physical injuries and circulation of pigs and cows. The unit element of the GIS layers are sites. Since all the sites can’t be localized with the same detail of precision, we mapped this information into two different layers. Precisely localized sites (markets, churches, bridges, gates, etc.) were mapped with points, whereas imprecisely localized site (rivers, street, quays, etc.) were mapped with lines. Before joining the database to the GIS layer, we have synthetized information per site (number of ordinances issued for one site, number of prohibitions, number of zoning, etc.)
  • Number of items: 12 items for the line layer and 34 items for the point layer
  • Description of the fields:
Name of the columnDescription
IdUnique identifier of each site
nameName of the site
Nb_ordinanTotal number of ordinances issued for a site between 1337 and 1380

CLEANERS’ SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION IN THE 14th CENTURY

What do you see on the map? Number of mentions of cleaners per location in the 14th century

  • Origin of the information: Stadsarchief Gent, Stadsrekeningen (reeks 400), 1280-1389. Published in:

     

    – Vuylsteke, Julius P. and Alfons van Werveke, eds. Gentsche stads- en baljuwsrekeningen, 1280-1336. Ghent: Meyer-van Loo, 1900.

    – Pauw, Napoleon de, and Julius Vuylsteke, eds. De rekeningen der stad Gent: Tijdvak van Jacob van Artevelde, 1336-1349. Ghent: A. Hoste, 1874

    – Werveke, Alfons van, ed. Gentse stads- en baljuwsrekeningen (1351-1364). Brussels: Paleis der Academiën, 1970.

    -Nicholas, David, and Walter Prevenier, eds., Gentse stads en baljuwsrekeningen (1365-1376). Brussels: Paleis der Academiën, 1999

    – Vuylsteke, Julius P. ed. De rekeningen der stad Gent: Tijdvak van Philips van Artevelde, 1376-1389. Ghent: A. Hoste, 1893

  • Bibliography: Janna Coomans, “The King of Dirt: Public Health and Sanitation in Late Medieval Ghent,” Urban History 46 (2019): 82–105.
  • Comments: the city accounts contain each year in the section of expenses a list of reimbursements to city officials, in money and clothing. In these lists, expenses are noted for conincxkinderen, sanitary and policing officials, for keeping specific locations within the city clean. These entries containing a specific location have been mapped in this layer.
  • Number of items: 13

CRAFTSMEN IN THE 14th CENTURY

What do you see on the map? The spatial distribution of craftsmen of a specific craft in the 14th century (proportions are to be seen by variations of colour)

  • Origin of the information: the information has been found in David Nicholas, The Metamophosis of a Medieval City, In The Age, Of the Arteveldes, 1302-1390, Lincoln and London, University of Nebraska Press, 1987, p. 74-75. A table presents the number of craftsmen per craft and region.
  • Comments on choices which have been made: number of craftmen were converted into percentage. The unit element of this layer is the region. A jointure between the database and the shape with regions has been made thanks to the field “ID_regio”. The layer shows the spatial distribution of craftmen of a same craft within the city in percentage.
  • Copyright: David Nicholas, Léa Hermenault – ERC Project “Healthscaping Urban Europe” (n° 724114 )
  • Number of items: 14
  • Description of the fields:

Name of the columnDescription
IdUnique identifier of each district
BrewersProportion of Brewers located within a specific district
Carpenters/Wood merchantsProportion of Carpenters/Wood merchants located within a specific district
Other constructionProportion of Other construction located within a specific district
Money changers, cloth wholesalers, brokers, moneychangers, wine merchants, misc. poortersProportion of Money changers, cloth wholesalers, brokers, moneychangers, wine merchants, misc. poorters located within a specific district
Shippers and ShipwrightsProportion of Shippers and Shipwrights located within a specific district
Draper/weaversProportion of Draper/weavers located within a specific district
FullersProportion of Fullers located within a specific district
Other textileProportionof Other textile located within a specific district
MercersProportion of Mercers located within a specific district
BakersProportion of Bakers located within a specific district
ButchersProportion of Butchers located within a specific district
FishmongersProportion of Fishmongers located within a specific district
Spice dealersProportion of Spice dealers located within a specific district
Grain measurersProportionof Grain measurers located within a specific district
Other foodProportion of Other food located within a specific district
Smiths/armorersProportion of Smiths/armorers located within a specific district
Leather and furProportion of Leather and fur located within a specific district
Silver/goldsmithsProportion of Silver/goldsmiths located within a specific district
PottersProportion of Potters located within a specific district
CoopersProportion of Coopers located within a specific district
MoneylendersProportion of Moneylenders located within a specific district
BarristersProportion of Barristers located within a specific district
ForeignersProportion of Foreigners located within a specific district
SurgeonsProportion of Surgeons located within a specific district
PriestsProportion of Priests located within a specific district
Misc. craftsProportion of Misc. crafts located within a specific district
PaintersProportion of Painters located within a specific district
Misc. services, EducationProportionof Misc. services, Education located within a specific district
Millers, oil extractorsProportion of Millers, oil extractors located within a specific district
BathsProportion of Baths located within a specific district
Misc. Govt.Proportion of Misc. Govt. located within a specific district
City CouncilorsProportion of City Councilors located within a specific district

 

LATE MEDIEVAL NETWORK OF CANALS AND RIVERS

What do you see on the map? Hydrography of Ghent in the late middle ages.

  • Origin of the information: the rivers and canals network of Ghent have been drawn according to the Jacob van Deventer’s map of Ghent (1559).
  • Bibliography: if you want to know more about the representation of rivers on Jacob van Deventer’s work, you might read Reinout Rutte en Bram Vannieuwenhuyze, Stedenatlas Jacob van Deventer. 226 stadsplattegronden uit 1545-1575. Uitgeverij Thoth – Lannoo, Bussum – Tielt; 2018. ISBN 978 90 77699 17 1
  • Number of items: 1

TOPOGRAPHIC CONTOUR LINES

What do you see on the map? Topography of Ghent before present.

  • Origin of the information: the contour lines are coming from Frans Blockmans’ work (BLOCKMANS, F., Het Gentsche stadspatriciaat tot
    omstreeks 1302, Antwerpen-‘s Gravenhage
    , 1938.) and have been used since in lot of publications by the municipal service of archaeology of Ghent.
  • Number of items: 31
  • Description of the fields:

Name of the column

Description

Id

Unique identifier of
each lines

Altitude_1

Altitude, in meters.

LATE MEDIEVAL STREETS NETWORK

What do you see on the map? Ghent’s late medieval streets network

  • Origin of the information: the streets of Ghent have been drawn according to the Jacob van Deventer’s map of Ghent (1559).
  • Bibliography: if you want to know more about the representation of rivers on Jacob van Deventer’s work, you might read Reinout Rutte en Bram Vannieuwenhuyze, Stedenatlas Jacob van Deventer. 226 stadsplattegronden uit 1545-1575. Uitgeverij Thoth – Lannoo, Bussum – Tielt; 2018. ISBN 978 90 77699 17 1
  • Number of items: 602

WATER STREAM DIRECTION

What do you see on the map? Arrows which help you to undertand the water stream direction in different Ghent’s canals

  • Origin of the information: map from Decavele J. , De Herdt R., 1976, Gent op de wateren en naar de zee, Antwerpen, p. 24
  • Number of items: 12