Data Sets

This page gives a brief description of each of the layers that are mapped in the GIS, along with their sources.
Ufficio del Fango Offenses: The fango dataset is contains the information collected from the registers of the Ufficio delle acque, strade, ponti, calanchi, seliciate e fango, from 1287 to 1383. Fango officials regularly inspected the city and recorded health and safety violations in registers, along with the description and location. It is possible to query this information by year, location, type of offense, gender and profession of offender, and infrastructure. Source: T. Zaneri and G. Geltner, ‘The dynamics of healthscaping: mapping communal hygiene in Bologna, 1287–1383,’ Urban History, (2020), 1–26. 
Churches: These show the location of each of the parish churches in medieval Bologna. Source: R. Smurra, ‘Progetto Fonti medievali in rete’, Centro Gina Fasoli:, accessed 1 Jan. 2019; S.K. Wray, Communities and Crisis: Bologna during the Black Death (Leiden, 2009); M. Fini, Bologna sacra: tutte le chiese in due millenni di storia. ()
Artisans 1294: This layer shows the number and type of artisans in Bologna in the year 1294. Source: A. Ivan Pini, ‘La ripartizione topografica degli artigiani a Bologna nel 1294: Un esempio di demografia sociale,’ in Artigiani e salariati: Il mondo del lavoro nell’Italia dei secoli XII–XV, (Pistoia, 1984), 189–224.
Canals and Rivers: This layer shows the major canals and water sources which flowed through the medieval city. Source: A. Zanotti, Il sistema delle acque a Bologna dal XIII al XIX secolo (Bologna, 2000); A. Calbi, Acquedotto 2000: Bologna, l’acqua del duemila ha duemila anni (Bologna, 1985);
Statutes 1245-67: This layer shows the health and infrastructure regulations as detailed in the 1245-67 statutes: Source: L. Frati (ed.), Statuti di Bologna dall’anno 1245 all’anno 1267, 2 vols. (Bologna, 1869–77); F. Bocchi, Atlante Storico delle città italiane. Bologna, II, Il Duecento (Bologna, 1995); R. Dondarini and C. De Angelis, Atlante Storico delle città italiane. Bologna, III, Da una crisi all’altra (secoli XIV–XVII) (Bologna, 1996).
Gates: This layer shows the medieval city gates. Source: F. Bocchi, Atlante Storico delle città italiane. Bologna, II, Il Duecento (Bologna, 1995).
Notable Locations: This layer shows the major markets and churches in the city.
Hospitals and Monasteries: This layer shows the important hospitals and monasteries around the city. Source: ‘Origine di Bologna: Vie, strade, vicoli, piazze, luoghi di Bologna’,
Surface Water Flow: This layer shows the flow of ground water. It is based on modern elevation levels and was generated from a DEM (Digital Elevation Model). Source: NASA, METI, AIST, Japan Spacesystems and U.S./ Japan ASTER Science Team. ASTER DEM Product. 2001, distributed by NASA EOSDIS Land Processes DAAC.